Indirektni govor


„“ – navodni znaci (quotation marks)

Uvodni glagoli (reporting verbs) mogu biti u:

  • Sadašnjem vremenu (He says; She asks, He shouts)
  • Prošlom vremenu( He said; She asked; He shouted)

Doslovno ponavljanje tuđih riječi naziva se upravnim govorom, dok tuđe riječi izrečene našim riječima zovemo neupravnim govorom.

Kad mijenjamo iz upravnog u neupravni rečenice s vremenskim frazama, onda je potrebno i te fraze promijeniti.

Promjena

iz

u

I

she/he

Tonight

that evening

Ago

before

this (evening)

that (evening)

today/this day

that day

these (days)

those (days)

now

then

(a week) ago

(a week) before

last weekend

the weekend before

here

there

next (week)

the following (week)

tomorrow

the next/following day

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


UVODNI GLAGOL U SADAŠNJEM VREMENU

POTVRDI OBLIK

He says:“This is my book.“
He says that this is his book.

U potvrdnim rečenicama s uvodnim glagolom u sadašnjem vremenu možemo, ali i ne moramo koristiti veznik that, i vano je naglasiti da nema promjene vremena.

Dakle, vrijeme se ne smije mijenjati u rečenici koju smo prebacili u neupravni govor.

Upitni oblik

Postoje dva tipa upitnih rečenica.

U prvom imamo upitnu riječ na početku rečenice, pod navodnicima.

Upitne riječi su: wherewhenwhowhathow oftenhow long, which, why, itd.

U neupravnom govoru koristi se ista upitna riječ kao i u upravnom.

Primjer:

He asks: „What do you want to eat?“

He asks what I want to eat.

Kod drugog tipa rečenica pod navodnicima ne počinje sa upitnom riječi.

Kad nemamo upitne riječi onda je obavezno koristiti veznik IF.

Primjer:

He asks: „ Do you live in Konjic?“

He asks if I live in Konjic.

Pri tvorbi neupravnog govora rečenica nakon upitne riječi ili IF veznika mora biti potvrdna.

Izuzetak je question word WHO.

Primjeri oba tipa:

My teacher asks: „Have you done your homework?“
My teacher asks if I have done my homework.

My mother asks: „Who goes to the park with you?“
My mother asks who goes to the park with me.

He asks: „Are you going to the cinema tomorrow?“
He asks if I am going to the cinema the next day.

She asks me: „Are you wrong?“
She asks me if I am wrong.

She asks: „Can people here expect wonders?“
She asks me if people can expect wonders there.

John asks me: „Why don't you go home?“
John asks me why I don't go home.

They ask me: „When will you come?“
They ask me when I will come.

I ask him: „Who is going with you?“
I ask him who's going with him.

She asks me: „Who speaks French here?“
She asks me who speaks French there.

He asks: „Where did you sleep last night?“
He asks where I slept last night.

UZVICI I IMPERATIVI

Kod imperativa je svejedno je li uvodni glagol napisan u sadašnjem ili prošlom vremenu.

Dakle, nema nikakve promjene vremena, bez obzira na to u kojem je vremenu uvodni glagol, već se pri tvorbi neupravnog govora samo koristi infinitiv glagola.

Primjeri:

He said:“Go away!“
He said to me to go away.

He shouts at his son: „Do your homework!“
He shouts at his son to do his homework.“

She said: „Don't talk!“
She said to me not to talk.

He says: „Write the letter, please!“
He says to me to write the letter.

UVODNI GLAGOL U PROŠLOM VREMENU

POTVRDNI OBLIK

Kad se uvodni glagol nalazi u prošlom vremenu, onda pri tvorbi neupravnog govoramoramo promijeniti i vrijeme rečenice. Vrijeme u kojem je napisana rečenica u upravnom govoru mijenjamo za jedno vrijeme unazad.

Simple Present – Simple past
Present countinous tense – Past countinous tense
Simple Past – Past Perfect
Present Perfect – Past Perfect
Past Perfect – Past Perfect
Will – Would
Can – Could
May – Might
Must – Must/Had to
am / are / is – was/were
was / were – had been
has been – had been
had been – had been

Primjeri

iz

u

Peter: "I work in the garden."

Peter said that he worked in the garden.

Peter: "I worked in the garden."

Peter said that he had worked in the garden.

Peter: "I have worked in the garden."

Peter: "I had worked in the garden."

Peter: "I will work in the garden."

Peter said that he would work in the garden.

Peter: "I can work in the garden."

Peter said that he could work in the garden.

Peter: "I may work in the garden."

Peter said that he might work in the garden.

Peter: "I would work in the garden." 
(could, might, should, ought to)

Peter said that he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to)

Peter: "I'm working in the garden."

Peter said that he was working in the garden.

Peter: "I was working in the garden."

Peter said that he had been working in the garden.

Peter: "I have been working in the garden."

Peter: "I had been working in the garden."

He said: “She wears glasses.“
He said that she wore glasses.

He said: „I went to cinema last night.“
He said that he had gone to the cinema the night before.

She said: „They have read this book.“
She said that they had read this book.

They said: „We have already been in Tuzla.“
They said that they had already been in Tuzla.

She said: „I will go to Sarajevo because I didn't finish some work there.“
She said that she would go to Sarajevo because she hadn't finished some work there.

She said: “My sister also speaks English very well.“
She said that her sister also spoke English very well.

She said: „I met her yesterday.“
She sais that she had met her the day before.

She said: „I will be traveling to the seaside this time tomorrow.“
She said that she would be traveling to the seaside that time the next day.

He said to me: „I am very busy today but if you come tomorrow, I will be able to see you again.“
He said to me that he was very busy that day but if I came the next day, he would be able to see me again.

He said to me: „I'm sorry, it wasn't possible for me to see you last week as I had arranged, and you must really excuse me for not telling you this.“
He said to me that he was sorry, it hadn't been possible for him too see me the previous week as he had arranged, and that I really had to excuse him for not telling me that.

UPITNI OBLIK

Upitni oblik s uvodnim glagolom u prošlom vremenu imamo dva tipa rečenica. 
U prvom rečenica pod navodnicima počinje sa upitnom riječi, dok u drugom nema upitne riječi.

prvom tipu pri tvorbi neupravnog govora, nakon što prepišemo uvodni glagol prepisuje se i upitna riječ poslije kojeg rečenica koja slijedi mora biti u potvrdnom obliku, ali napisana u skladu s pravilom o promjeni vremena (Koristi se jedno vrijeme unazad).

Primjer:

He asked: „ Where does he live?“
He asked where he lived.

U drugom tipu, onom bez upitne riječi koristi se veznik IF nakon kojeg se piše rečenica u potvrdnom obliku, i s promijenjenim vremenom.

Primjer:

She asked: „Is he at home?“
She asked if he was at home.

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